What is the pv ribbon for solar cells?


pv ribbon, also known as tin-coated soldering tape. pv ribbon is an important part of the PV module, belongs to the electrical connection parts, applied to the series or parallel connection of PV cells, plays an important role in the conductive polymerisation of electricity, in order to enhance the PV module’s output voltage and power. pv ribbon is an important material in the process of PV module welding, and the quality of its quality has a direct impact on the current collection efficiency of PV modules, which has a greater impact on the power of PV modules and the efficiency of PV power generation systems. The quality of pv ribbon has a direct impact on the current collection efficiency of PV modules, which has a greater impact on the power of PV modules and the efficiency of PV power generation systems. Please contact us directly for your pv ribbon needs.

The working principle of photovoltaic cells is the photovoltaic effect, which means that semiconductor materials (such as silicon wafers) produce an electrical potential difference under the action of light, with two necessary conditions:

(1) The ability to absorb sunlight and generate negatively and positively charged carriers;

(2) Separation of negative carriers (electrons) and positive carriers (holes) using an internal electric field.

    Battery Cell

The battery cell is the most central component of the module, mainly used to convert light energy into electrical energy. Cells are connected in series and parallel to reach a certain rated output power and voltage to form a photovoltaic module. Photovoltaic modules are combined to form a photovoltaic array, which is connected to the controller, battery pack, inverter and other components to form a photovoltaic power generation system.

Solar cells are divided into monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells according to raw materials. Crystalline silicon cell technology is a silicon wafer as a substrate, based on the PN junction for photogenerated carrier separation power generation. According to the differences in raw materials and cell preparation technology, crystalline silicon cells are divided into P-type cells and N-type cells.P-type wafers are made of silicon doped with boron, and the P-type cell preparation technologies are the traditional AL-BSF (Aluminium Back Field) and PERC technologies; while N-type wafers are made of silicon doped with phosphorus, and the N-type cells have more cell preparation technologies, including PERC, TOPCon, IBC and HJT, etc.

Among them, heterojunction battery is a kind of N-type battery, with high conversion efficiency, high power generation, low temperature coefficient, no photoelectric attenuation and potential attenuation, simple preparation process, double-sided power generation efficiency and many other advantages. With the continuous breakthroughs in battery technology and the acceleration of the industry process, heterojunction technology is expected to become the next generation of mainstream battery technology.


Photovoltaic glass is a kind of soda-lime silicate glass, which is mainly used for the encapsulation of photovoltaic modules. PV glass will directly affect the power generation efficiency and service life of PV modules.

PV glass is generally low iron tempered glass or semi-tempered glass, with the following characteristics. Firstly, it has good transmittance. Transmittance is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of PV cells. Photovoltaic glass needs to have high transmittance and high reflectivity of 1200nm infrared light. Second, high mechanical strength. Impact resistance, can withstand 2400Pa wind pressure and 5400Pa snow pressure, play a supportive and protective role. Third, good durability. Affected by climate and geographic location, the components need to operate in the open air, day and night temperature difference in the environment, need to have corrosion resistance, weather resistance qualities.

Heterojunction battery modules are generally encapsulated with ultra-white, low-iron tempered glass, which has a high light transmittance and less impurities, making them less likely to explode. The front side of Akcome heterojunction battery module adopts toughened coated glass, which can enhance the light transmittance.

    Adhesive film

PV encapsulation film is an important part of PV module, located on both sides of the upper and lower sides of the cell. The primary role of the film is to bond the battery with the glass and backplane. Secondly, the film can play the role of encapsulation protection, protect the battery circuit from external environmental interference, and extend the service life of the module. In addition, the encapsulation film can enhance the light transmittance of the PV module, which in turn improves the power generation efficiency of the module. Finally, the film can also play a role in the production, storage, installation and use of components in the process of structural support and positioning of the battery.

According to the material, the mainstream adhesive film mainly has EVA, POE, EPE, PVB. EVA film is the mainstream PV encapsulation adhesive film, with good light transmission, good processing performance, stable supply and low cost, but there are high water vapour permeability, low impact resistance, unstable PID resistance and other shortcomings, POE film has low water vapour permeability, good PID resistance and is suitable for encapsulation of double-glazed modules and N-type modules, but with poor processing properties and high cost. POE adhesive film is suitable for encapsulation of double-glass and N-type modules, but has poor processing properties and high cost.

Heterojunction double-glass module adopts POE film encapsulation, which has high water resistance and high anti-PID performance, providing a reliable guarantee for heterojunction high-efficiency modules.


Photovoltaic backsheets are encapsulation materials used for back protection, generally used for single-glass modules.Photovoltaic backsheet is divided into fluorine backsheet and non-fluorine backsheet, fluorine backsheet has TPT, TPE, TPC, CPC, non-fluorine backsheet has PET, PA/PO and so on.Photovoltaic backsheets are mainly used to resist the erosion of humidity and heat on the cells, adhesive film and other materials, and play the role of corrosion, weather, oxidation and insulation protection, which can effectively extend the service life of the module. The white backsheet has high reflectivity, which can improve the conversion efficiency of the module. At the same time, the high infrared reflectivity also facilitates to reduce the working temperature of the module.


PV frame is installed in the glass extension of the frame, mainly used for fixed, sealed solar modules, to facilitate the transport and installation of photovoltaic modules.The installation of the frame is conducive to the protection of glass edges, strengthening the sealing performance of PV modules.At the same time, the frame is the carrier of the link between the module and the bracket, the use of the frame can improve the overall mechanical strength of the module and load resistance, thereby extending the life of the module.

Welding Ribbon

pv ribbon is coated with tin-based solder on the surface of the copper tape to form a composite conductive material, applied to the series or parallel connection of photovoltaic cells, to play the role of convergence of current and conductive, is an important material in the welding process of photovoltaic components.

The pv ribbon is divided into interconnection ribbon and convergence ribbon.Interconnection ribbon is used to connect PV cells, collect and transmit PV cell current. The converging ribbon is used to collect the current generated by the battery strings and lead out to the junction box.Welding tapes have a direct impact on current collection, which in turn affects the power and efficiency of the module.In the early days of the industry, flat welding tapes were used, but with the development of the industry, round welding tapes are now used for high-efficiency modules. Modules are soldered with low-temperature round wire soldering tape, with oxygen-free copper at the core and tin-lead alloy wrapped around the outer layer, together with low-temperature flux for 165-190°C soldering.


Silicone is mainly used for bonding and sealing the laminated glass PV modules, bonding the frame and glass, junction box and backplane (or glass), play a sealing and connecting role.

According to the use of different locations, silicone is divided into sealant and potting adhesive.Sealant is used in the frame slot and the bottom of the junction box and backplane, potting gel is generally used inside the junction box, the main role is to protect the internal circuitry of the junction box.

Junction box

Junction box mainly consists of junction box cover, sealing ring, diode, heat sink, box, wire, connectors.The main role of the junction box is to connect the power generated by the solar cell with the external lines.It can play a role in sealing, waterproofing and dustproofing the lead wires of PV modules.The junction box also protects the PV module system operation safety, if the module short circuit, the junction box will automatically disconnect the short-circuit battery strings, to prevent the whole system from being burned.The pv ribbon consists of base material and surface coating:

(1) The base material is copper of different sizes and requires precise specification dimensions, good electrical conductivity and a certain degree of strength;

(2) surface coating can be used electroplating method, vacuum deposition method, spraying method or hot dip coating method and other special processes, such as tin alloy coating materials, according to a certain composition ratio and thickness of uniformly wrapped around the copper substrate.

According to the European Photovoltaic Association forecast data (median case), and according to 1GW photovoltaic module required pv ribbon 500 tonnes, 550 tonnes and 600 tonnes of different scenarios simulation calculations, by 2024 the global pv ribbon market demand will be more than 100,000 tonnes, the global pv ribbon market demand during the period of 2020-2024 compound annual growth rate reached15.56%.